Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS COV-2) is categorised as a novel virus responsible for the spread of coronavirus disease throughout the world. World-wide researchers are investing their thorough efforts in investigating treatment regimens for COVid-19 treatment by formulating new vaccines and drugs. It is estimated that a vaccine clinically effective against Covid-19 may be clinically made available within the next 12 to 15 months.
Rapid diagnostics and development of effective vaccines is imperative for controlling the spread of on emerging pandemics. Although, no new SARS COV human case has been detected so far, there are chances of it to likely occur across the Middle Eastern region due to the persistence of the zoonotic reservoirs in such endemic zones. Effective MERS-COV vaccines might be considered to be beneficial for interrupting the transmission chances from potent animal reservoirs and infected human species to susceptible hosts in case of SARS COV-2.
Live attenuated vaccines developed for SARS, which has been previously evaluated across animal species should be associated with disseminated Covid-19 infection amidst immunocompromised hosts. Further, for the development of drugs and vaccines particularly re-directed against Covid-19 infection should be performed in suitable animal models. The development of the novel anti-SARS-COV-2 drugs may be obstructed due to a wide array of virological as well as patient associated factors. The topmost obstruction in the development of such drugs is that COV are one of the most diversely mutating virus representatives. Despite the report claiming many host-based and virus-based treatment options being employed in the SARS-COV-2 treatment, only a few of them are likely to fulfil the glp toxicology profiling features. Most of the drugs have more than one limitation that prevents it from passing beyond the preclinical toxicology stage of pharmaceutical drug analysis. Examples of such pharmaceutical drug candidates are inclusive of chlorpromazine, cyclosporine, interferon alpha, etc.
GLP toxicity profiling of majority of these drugs have highlighted a few of their side effects such as immunosuppression in subjects undergoing clinical trials. For example, when Ribavarin was dosed at extremely higher levels, it was associated with the development of neutropenia, haemolytic anaemia, cardiorespiratory distress, and teratogenicity, etc. The pharmaceutical agents that were re-directed towards targeting the signalling pathways of the host or their receptors are likely to induce immunopathology. Absence of a reliable method for in vivo drug delivery system possessing particular problems for siRNAs and agent have not been previously accomplished in human population.
Looking ahead, more feasible drug and vaccine options against SARS-COV-2 should be further evaluated to be screened for IND enabling studies. Thus, for the long-term development of novel and broad spectrum anti SARS-COV-2 drugs should be focused for development. These are the only possible hope to serve as the ultimate strategy for the ever-circulating and emerging SARS-COV-2 infection across the globe.
On a concluding note, it can be inferred that there most of the IND enabling studies for assessing the toxicity profiling can work as a contributing factor for the risk identification and the underlying mechanism of its course of drug action.